Scientific and public-political journal of Presidium FEB RAS
Founded in 1932
Publishing is discontinued in 1939, renewed in 1990
Dalnauka, 1(123). 2005

The Bulletin FEB RAS. 2005.5

Not once on the pages of our journal the scientist-teachers with their vision of problem of formation. V.D.Lindenbraten, doctor of medical sciences (1996, 3), writes: pulling to research new information s programmed in genetic device, why under questioning 95 % senior schoolboys and 55 % students declare that they dislike to learn? The repulsion to school is formed gradually. Consequently, it is brought up. Is it possible to return the lads initially programmed and artificially oppressed longing to knowledge in them? One of the the most most important ways to this Lindenbraten considers the actualization of education: knowledge can  not be sent by means of tale or show, they can be received only by way of active  trained. The quality criterion of such education is not a volume of knowledge, but possession by skills of independent work in conditions of  uncertainties. The Doctor of physico-mathematical sciences V.F.Filaretov (2000, 2; 2004, 5), voicing alert about that that the interest of graduates to technical science directions in recent years, sees only one output: and at a rate of state, and at a rate of region, and at a rate of edge, city, institute, school to stimulate receipts of talented youth in science and production. Here can be useful as special contests on professions, as forgotten clubs of young technicians, also it can be trips of schoolboys on conferences, exhibitions of young mathematicians, biologists, technicians at Academies, and etc. It is unnecessaryto have a lot of it. The main idea is to have it and that this stimulate. Never mind, will these lads go in science: they will try to put and solve the professional problems non-standard on any place.
In article published below we can see one of approve of phenomenon "overtaking" education , for the first time worded by V.V.Milashevich  (The tendencies of science ecologization  . Vladivostok: Far East Science Center of USSR Academy of Sciences, 1983). Simplifying, its essence is concluded in reorientations a style of thinking  as trained, as training- change descriptive-theoretical bases of sciences by active-practical, when theoretical problems are initiated by  motives, purposes of practical activity.

Computational Fluid Mechanics and Oceanography lab. Vasily N. Khramushin

Marine Science and Research Activity of Youth
(Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Research, FEB RAS, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).

It is reasonably accepted that shipbuilding and navigation gave rise to geographic discoveries and facilitated the development of fundamental sciences and industrial technologies that stemmed from the great heritage of European research and engineering schools. Such high standards can be maintained only through continuous learning of marine science. In 20032004, the sponsorship from Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd made it possible for the Sakhalin Branch of the Russian Geographic Society and the Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Research FEB RAS, along with teen-age model ship construction workshops of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and marine faculties of technical universities of Vladivostok and Komsomolsk-na- Amure, to carry out educational and research programs related to nautical qualities of historical navy. The experience gained through these collaborative studies suggests that the creative potential of school-children and undergraduate students should be combined with fundamental science to increase the efficiency of storm navigation in the Russian Far East.

Marine science is a special science, sent by professional navigators  on lectures and in practice beginning sailors. The particularities of designing and nautical qualities of different naves and courts, detailed analysis of processes of interaction of body,  perfection of acceptances ship management in complex and storm conditions of sail, maneuverability of ships during the mooring in open sea and at passing  narrow are, as in the same way either as great number of the most interesting sea problems, are studied very carefully in course of sea deal, leaning on historical experience of navigation - good sea practice.

The Essential requirement to future navigator and shipbuilder is practical mastering knowledge of sea deal, confirmed by detailed accounts about scholar and production practices on the deck and sought-after footbridge of real courts. Such practice of preparing the navigators takes its begin with temporary Peter the Great, sent future Russian sea officers to rescue in European countries. Only in distant storm marches harmonious joining the theoretical knowledge and practical skills of sea sciences occurs.

The Model of nave, made by Peter the Great on return from Holland in 1697.On models this shipbuilders perfect the design of the hull and technological decisions on stocks assembly of new nave. On designs to this mode close  such nave as "Apostle Peter", "Apostle Pavel" and others, built in 1697-1702  in Voronezsh

Support of naval dynasties and preparing the future captains and sea engineers impossible without popularization of sea sciences, without active development of children's clubs and ship-modeling studios, in which the most complex scientific problems apply to fascinating research creative activity.

The first Russian sea officers,  as own engineers, architects, hydrographer and land-surveyor gave the Russia founded by Peter the Great in January 14,1701, School "Mathematical and navigational that is to say nautical arts of teaching". Its first graduates have glorified Russia their own achievements in sciences and military deals. Peter the Great personally designed the new naves and even made their scale models,  reproducing design in accuracy and, accordingly, technology of their building. Studied ship deal in Holland and England, Peter the Great entered the rule to invite leading foreign specialists for working in Russia and train the young engineers in Europe, hereunder had linked Russian industry and shipbuilding with the most latest European technological achievements.

The traditions of Peter's epoch are saved in modern Russia. Youth gets acquainted with bases of sea deal and theory of nave in clubs of young sailors and ship-modeling  studios under the direction of authoritative naval mentors and enthusiasts of ship sciences. It is important to note that making of exact copies of nave models and use them in sporting competitions of ship-modelers hardly refers to idle hobby or amusement industry.  Undertaking the designed studies in the field of theory and nave seaworthiness [1], drawing work and fully fledged design and technological working outs on making of the hull, superstructures, able belongings and ship mechanisms, and often automated systems of management by engines or sails on acting models-all these skills are just the minimum that  young sportsmen ship-modelers should have. Certainly, in order to receive such knowledge and skills, future navigators have to study the mathematical, navigational and ship sciences bases, finding them in sea popular, historical and scientific and technical literature, at the same time getting know history of naval art, mode and relations between sailors and ship commanders, laying  hereunder strong bases for mastering the sea profession. The laborious craft and pangs of creative work are usually recompenses by meeting with experienced navigators at sporting competitions and exhibitions of models of ships, where young sailors' understanding of deep essence of real sea deal  becomes stronger, and at the same time the special sea language and deck slang. Certainly, in the future, not all pupils of youthful sea clubs will throw in their lot firmly with sea deal, but to become creative thinking engineers is predestined.

The model of the nave with firm on course and well streamlined hull, rigged by gyrocompass and auto-rudder. The photo is made on the first place of Russia on ship-modeling sport in classes of self-propelled models and yachts in Omsk in 1971. The author of project of nave and its models Vladimir Lagutin, Sizran.

The youth sea practice as successful participation in competitions of shipmodelers, especially with author's projects of models of ships, in many respects is indicative of taken place professional orientation and real qualities of future sea engineers. However, it is not enough the enthusiasm of instructors and their wards  for the first engineering and scientific achievements. The sea technical creative work must rest upon existing sea infrastructure and original large-profile ship-modeling production, at the minimum rigged by machine park for tree- and metalworking, electro- and radio technical  instrument complexes, different instruments and without fall - modern drawing-design equipment and science and technical sea library. So, in 70-e years of past century two well rigged ship-modeling  laboratories existed in large port city Sizran, one existed in ancient building of Palace of pioneers, second - in House of culture Sizran's plant of heavy machine building. Material and technical conditions required young ship-modelers working were created by  large industrial enterprises of Sizran, and unique small-dimensioned electro-technical conditions were made for building in models of ships any involved automation by Sizran's military helicopter's school, which sent the lads written off aircraft instruments, containing engines, gyro- ospreys, electro-controllers reduction gear, timers and etc. The The first All-Union competition of shipmodelers as special military-technical sports was organized by Osoviahim (the Society of assistance to defense, aircraft and chemical building) in June-July 1940. The Great Patriotic War delayed association of shipmodelers till 1949, since this time their All-Union meeting became annual, and  in 1963  ship-modeling sport was enclosed in United sporting classification. At that time the Federation of ship-modeling  sport USSR was created, which work was supported by the Central Committee of Voluntary Society of Assistance of Army, Aviations and Fleet (VSAAAF).

Till the end of 1970-begin of 1980th in soviet ship-modeling sport the presentation of models of naves and crafts on original projects and drawings of young authors was  greeted in very possible way, that changed ship-modeling in real sea science and technical  creative work, and competitions of shipmodelers - in contest of sea literacy and real experimental tests seaworthiness of new models of naves and crafts. Use on self-propelled models  all the manner of devices for deduction them on direct course also was not prohibited, that encouraged the inventive initiative of schoolboys, rigged their own small naves rather complex mechanisms for automatic control by rudders, engines and stabilizers of hull- calming of tossing.

Curiously enough that on drawings of Central sea club VSAAAF beside hypothetical naves such as watch nave "Mars", destroyer "Saturn", cruiser "Jupiter" and even aircraft carrier (without name), prudently the attitude of width to setting to 2-2,5  was lowered, that corresponds to the ancient sailing vessels and noticeably perfects seaworthiness of  models on choppiness. The last was important, as sporting competitions were not cancelled in the event of reinforcement of winds and choppiness, and young ship-modelers with their own eyes observed the catastrophes of models, connected with their insufficient seaworthiness. Quite often on one and the same areas of water were conducted the tests of self-propelled models with mechanical engines and racing of sailing vessels were held.

The estimation of sporting models according to the old Russian rules was conducted by 40-point's scale, in which 10 points was added for:1)knowledge of sea deal and literacy of working out of project of nave,   2) quality and scale of making of model,3) stability on course on running test, conducted under any condition of choppiness and wind, 4) exact observance to scale velocity of move on these tests. Thus, technical creative work of young technicians was orientated on deep studying of  new perspective naves  and crafts projects, which were strictly valued on criteria of sea literacy,  but model itself, its automation and technical rig were subjected to hard nautical tests in complex conditions of sail on open for winds and waves areas of water.


In 1967 the Federation of ship-modeling  sport  of Russia has come to a decision about participation in championships of Europe. The Author's projects no traditional naves were  forbidden by the International rules NAVIGA, but in the rigging of self-propelled models were put bands on use of  gyroscopes, stabilizers of tossing and other automatic devices, perfecting nautical characteristics and stability on course of self-propelled models. Thus, young authors of new naves projects were offered  to make  beautiful toys, and sea scientific creative work and understanding of nautical art was substituted for mastering of modeller-copyist's skill .

 According to these rules the sporting models of courts are divided on categories, groups and classes. For example, in categories E-self-propelled and F-radio-controlled original models of group X-free design also engage in competition, which  are not valued on stand in no way, and therefore the claims on sea literacy of designing the real naves are not laid to them .This substitutes full-fledged engineering-technical creative work for simple longing to straight-propelled in E-category or propulsions and maneuverability in F-category , reached by any, including distant from sea practice, technical methods.

On start outwardly alike yachts (on the left) disperse in the most unexpected  courses for young sportsmen. The yacht of winner (on the right) must not only take wind, but also strictly keep given course or certain  maneuver on head winds.

The Special sea school for ship-modelers the racing sailing yachts present, concerning S-sailing category, as well as models-copies of  radio-controlled sailing naves of F-category. On different classes of racing yachts are put the geometric restrictions, basically linking sizes of their hull and areas of sails. The technical initiative on perfection of sailing arms and use the automatic control rudder and sails on models of yachts is not limited especially, that transforms the sporting appearances of yachtsmen in fascinating competition of original sailing riggings, on-board automation and experience of yacht management both on weak, and on strong winds, including on serious wind choppiness.

On competitions young shipbuilders fight for youth and then and adult sporting categories.  In programs of additional technical education the making of sought-after model during one academic year is usually envisaged,  that allows the schoolboys in summer to bear several exams on literacy of designing and new naves making , conduct their nautical tests, as well as control the nautical qualities of other models of courts and make sure of good quality of  winners' models. Losing competitions, young shipbuilder gets the necessary experience in the future, in high-priced real shipbuilding, not to waste his own power and another's labour on ungrounded invention.

The models of naves and courts of young ship-modelers are prepared to stand estimation on traditional competitions of Sakhalin schoolboys 9 may 2003.

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Palace of children's and youth creative work (PC(y)CW, earlier Palace of pioneers) could save the conditions for research creative work of schoolboys till present. Ship-modeling  laboratory has ample and light premises,  equipped by necessary tree- and metal-working tools, primary there was installed rather big experimental pool. But all existing ship-modeling  studios sharply lacks methodical and technical support.  It is rather difficult to conduct the ship-modeling economy nowadays.  The tools and other equipment need constant technical maintenance,  the regular renovation of stock, adjustment and repair radio- and electrical equipment is required, as well as timely renewing of consumables for making and riggings of models. For presenting the minimum of modern level requirements to undertaking designed works joining of young ship-modelers to computer preparing of the drawings is necessary,  independent making calculations on nave theory, propulsions and seaworthiness for their new author's models.

It should be noticed that employees of laboratory and institutes of Russian academy of sciences quite often lead sea search or experimental studies in similar creative situation under the unpretentious technical equipment, which is compensated by the ability to non-standard thinking and inventiveness of scientists and engineers. In accordance with plan of scientific works on subject "Seaworthiness" in SRB for automation of Marine Researches of Far Eastern branch of RAS  is conducted estimate and experimental study storm seaworthiness of different classes of naves and crafts [3]. With orientation toward need of  sea research creative work of youth development, in 2003 complex of experimental studies on academic programs it was  managed to comprise young Sakhalin ship-modelers in optional plans. Original scientific and enlighten  mission  has enriched the totals of search studies by fresh ideas, new and unexpected experimental discoveries.

Pupils of ship-modeling  studio of  Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk PC(y)CW have studied storm seaworthiness of historical naves and courts, accepting active participation in making of models and conductive all experimental tests in conditions of strong wind and intensive choppiness by itself on Tunaycha lake. In accordance with NAVIGA's rules all drawings were approved as projects of perspective naves and courts, developed in SRB AMR FEB RAS.

The building of five court models  is executed in accordance with technological schemes of S.K.Polischuk  (on the left). Next to him the leader of studio V.Y.Kalikin and ship-modelers Laida Kushnaryeva, Alexander Baturin and Alexander Boyarkin - participants of educational and research works.

The lessons with pupils-ship-modelers has supported oilfield company "Sakhalin Energy", leading active sea works in storm widths of Sakhalin shelf. The grant  of this company has allowed to unite the technical potential of academic science and all ship-modeling studioes of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk under the aegis of Sakhalin branch of Russian geographical society. Traditional competitions of shipmodelers and expeditionary studies of storm seaworthiness radio-controlled models in real conditions of intensive choppiness and strong wind were conducted jointly.

 Hydromechanics, is the science about moving of utter ambiences, full of  paradoxes. Intuitive obvious shipbuilding ideas under active testing in conditions of storm quite often bring to absolutely opposite results or unacceptable consequences. Pupils could make sure of this during the first experiments on Tunaycha lake (May 2003)

Test output of small model of battleship "Bismark" (M-b 1 : 350) on choppy surface of Tunaycha lake. Demonstrating good storm seaworthiness ofnave, model has reminded of technical difficulties of maintenance of storm sail safety that, leaving far off enough  from coast, on full move became  to sink bow under water.

The models of fishing trawler and traditional warship, conditionally ready to test have taken a part in the first free sail of self-propelled models on intensive choppiness. While big models were prepared for lowering on water, the small self-propelled model of battleship "Bismark" was tested on storm area of water, shown good example of storm seaworthiness of prototype of well- known historical nave. The hull of "Bismark" split large-scale waves easily, advanced confidently and without apparent loss, keeping upper deck parallel to the surface of wave and having mainly vertical pitching in motion.

The ensemble of questions about methods of provision good seaworthiness on intensive choppiness was appeared in mind of pupils during preparing the new experimental models. For example, the rules of good sea practice spoke about need to keep such ways of loading the models by ballast (the ballasting) that parameters of propulsion and pitching was corresponding to the action of nave-prototype sail in the best way. However by traditions of competitions on calm water, imposed by NAVIGA, at ship-modeling studio the whole ballast of warship model  was placed in bow bulb and near the stern tiller room. As a result excessive stability and increased inertia of  model on pitching rather quickly have brought to the shipwreck: model sank in free driftage on choppiness, after free-lance engines' stoppage.

The model of fishing trawler completely was ballasted before lowering on  Tunaycha lake. The hull of trawler had dribbles of  large warship of the end XIX-begin XX century. Radio-controlled model went toward the steep wave crests and allowed to make the first  surveys for the following analysis of conditions of interactions of hull with large choppiness and strong wind. The observations for trawler sail  have confirmed its best storm seaworthiness.

In June of 2003, for the first time after perennial break, Sakhalin command of shipmodelers took part in guest youth participations on championship of Khabarovsk region in  Komsomol'sk-na-Amure. This was useful as for pupils, as for their mentors  having not high sporting ranks in this military-technical sport. The journey on mainland was on ferry "Sakhalin", and it was the first going out on large ship for many children. The residents of Komsomol'sk have prepared the regional championship of young shipmodelers on high level that has confirmed viability of sea technical creative work on FAR EAST of Russia.  There was presented quite a lot of high-quality models of naves, courts and submarines, made by pupils from Komsomolsk-on-Amure, Khabarovsk, Amursk and other Far-Eastern cities.

 There is  a model of patrol-hydrographic nave on start. Even in ideal conditions the models of young shipmodelers are subjected to influence of choppiness and wind, that is why  its storm nautical qualities are the keys to success

The residents of Sakhalin, except models of traditional nave (Alexander Boyarkin) and trawler (Andrey Pozdeev) mentioned above,  prepared to competitions model optimized for storm sail is patrol-hydrographic nave - corvette (Semyen Khramushin). The narrow hull of corvette, designed by analogy with ancient torpedo-boats, demonstrated all difficulties in maintenance of complex of nautical characteristics this high-speed nave. During ballasting transversal stability of model with heavy superstructures was got nearly zero that stipulated very easy rolling. Filled up inside hull the surface board of nave,   acting at waterline level, added a good spare of stability to model even under negative initial metacentric height. During the first going out to sailing the model confirmed the high nautical qualities of their prototypes - ancient torpedo boats. At the same time the project  showed a lot of  defects, which gave ground for engineering and theoretical searching of new decisions on separate elements of form of hulk. So, under influence of strong squalls, swooped on open reservoir, model heeled and lost stability on course, beginning turning for adduction toward wind. The pupils were offered to find the reason of problem, inducing them to discuss unwritten rules of good sea practice,  bases of  nave's hydrodynamic, optimum form of  hull and for the ship as a whole architecture. It turned out  that deep-loaded bow bulb  prevented stability on storm course of  corvette model , which crooked equivalent line of hull under wind tipping. At the same time at big speed of move the centre of lateral hydrodynamic resistance was displaced far to the nose,  that, under disposed in the average part of  deck superstructure hull, created the conditions for the quick adduction of model on toward the wind course. To except such characteristics of hulk it is necessary to take away deep-seated bow bulb, and for stabilization of excessive roving on large choppiness even to cut the lower part of stem, hereunder preventing possibility of seizure the hull by storm wave on sidelong course corners.

Nevertheless what incurable defects or unacceptable nautical characteristics of  models of corvette and trawler were not noted in the first place confirmed the high quality of designing of lines of speed naves in the end of XIX-beginning of  XX century - the most close prototypes non traditional lines of hull, successfully tested by ship-modelers of Sakhalin.

The most significant action for pupils of Sakhalin became test the models in experimental pool of  the department of shipbuilding of State technical university in Komsomol'sk-na-Amure (the leader of pool c.t.s Nikolai Alexandrovich Mytnik). During the test of  corvette model the important characteristic of ancient sailing naves was revealed, which theoretical drawing of hull is inserted in geometric circumference [4]. When corvette, possessing very small initial stability, moved toward large wave, him, in order to avoid the blow against wall of pool, the direction of motion was changed by sharp jerk of thread-leash there, that is why on steep circulation  and under the bows of counter waves the model fell and lay down on starboard side. However, possessing heavy stock of stability on big corners of list, leaving from beneath the waves, model once again got up on flat keel and, practically without rocking,  continued the quick free motion by sidelong course toward choppiness. Non-planned hard experiment with this model has shown that ancient naves possessed by high storm reliability, turnover did not threat them, even when reserves of dynamic stability were supported only toughness of standing rigging and floatability of sailing masts and spars at masts, prescribed under the wind  and waves bows on water surface.

The participants of educational-exploratory work with models of courts increased storm seaworthiness, built in ship-modeling studio of  Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk  Palace of children  (youth) creative work. Left to right: Pavel Kalikin - traditional nave; Bogdan Kravchenco - fishing trawler; Alexander Boyarkin - naval salvage - research ship; Michel Afanasief - universal transport ship; Semyen Khramushin -patrol-hydrographic corvette (5th October, 2003, Tunaycha lake).

During the summer and autumn 2003 all five radio-controlled models, built by pupils of Sakhalin, were  removed in free sail on Tunaycha lake. Operating models, passed different courses and maneuvered on strong wind among enormous, judging by model measures, storm waves, ship-modelers on own experience could make sure of existing of special art of storm navigation, in responsibility of sailors for safety of their courts sail , as well as in need of deep designed-technical studying of lines of hull, its rudders and propelling agents.

During the pupils was occupied with new models of courts, there were  prepared two kits of telemetry radio sets in laboratory of computing hydromechanics and oceanography SRB FEB RAS , allowed to deliver regularly data about velocities of move and corners of list and trim difference of easily sailing radio-controlled models on coast.

The new experiments were conducted in experimental pool of department of shipbuilding of State technical university in Komsomol'sk-na-Amure within the bounds of student research works at November - December 2003. The program of tests envisaged the analysis of propulsion and pinching of models during the moving by different courses concerning crests of regular choppiness. Video-surveys of  immovable and moving close by model documented the way of experiment. The experimental studying of bases of nave hydromechanics usually reveals the ensemble of technical omissions during designing and building of models with non-traditional lines of hull. So, the model of trawler loses the move not as much from the bows of counter waves as from frequent screw propeller baring. The model of corvette stands at slanting courses and log to wave on small moves wonderfully, but finds well visible list on starboard side during fast motion toward the wave, as it turned out later, it is connected with asymmetry of propeller shaft installing. Under the bows of waves screw propellers of transport ship started to revolve alternately, that hampered extremely the deduction of model on course, so far as emergency reverse of rudder from the one board to another held up its motion.

The curious event has occurred with the model of salvage vessel. The final experiment passed nearly impeccably. Confirming excellent  qualities of Arabic shebeca, the model moved confidently and was controlled on intensive choppiness, showing the small range of rolling and perfect seaworthiness in every respect. However on the upper deck between bulwarks the high level of water constantly kept, which was not thrown overboard without scuppers and a little of rolling. And as bulwarks were above coamings, hidden under the superstructure, that model on the second passage by course on wave unexpectedly sank. The sea practice does not forgive the disappointing trifles: value-added pouring with a low side hull primary was expected in the project of this model, but all consequences were not counted.

After multiple experiences, confirmed the rightness of theoretical ideas of designing  new courts with non-traditional form of hull, designed calculations one of the most reliable and simple models prepares to go out  to open sea.

Now the model of salvage vessel, inherited the hull from Arabic shebeca and Spanish caravels with temporary of Magellan and Columbus, was rigged by echo-sounding device, GPS-navigator and radio modem and changed into a small radio controlled hydrographic vessel. The experiments passed in October-November 2004 on board of hydrographic vessel GS-47 in Okhotsk sea near Urup and Kunashir islands of Kuril ridge. In autonomous sail at the speed of 1,5-2 knots new remote controlled vessel, having a good storm seaworthiness, confidently realized sounding and measurement of water surface temperature, incessantly delivering data about its location and condition of on-board instruments on removed computer by radio channel of measuring telemetry.

The model of universal transport ship and model of patrol-hydrographicnave on buildingtable. The equipment of radio control is fixed, and measuring sensors for registration of storm pitching and propulsions of models, having reconstructed historical lines of hulls are tested

 Thus, educational-exploratory works with pupils of Sakhalin were terminated not only motivated conclusions about a good storm seaworthiness of  historical naves, but also important practical result - successful test of super-small nave-robot, capable of executing the oceanological research with the minimum influence on sea surroundings.

So interesting educational-exploratory and experimental works of Sakhalin pupils were realized on the basis of laboratory of computing hydromechanics and oceanography of SRB AMR FEB RAS, with Branch of Russian geographical society on Sakhalin and enjoying the support of  "Sakhalin Energy" company, realizing the most complex sea oil and marketable works in storm widths of north-eastern shelf of Sakhalin island. The main results of joint scientific researches and creative achievements of Sakhalin ship-modelers are published in scientific-enlighten publishing "History of storm seaworthiness (from antiquity till present)" [2] and in Internet on the official address of Sakhalin science (www.shipdesign.ru/Geography/2003). In collaboration  the new technical decisions useful for modern practice of sea prospecting were found, as well as new problems were put, in the first place connected with searching for mathematical and experimental decisions for non-stationary problems of nave hydromechanics, interactions of ocean and atmosphere.

The ship must live in harmonies and unity with sea. If nautilus is very small, but she is capable of  undertaking the real hydrographic works in conditions of heavy waves, as well as there, where it is not safely for real ship or boat with people on board to appear. For the present the first going out of  new vessel to the sea  is greeted the white-sided dolphins. One of the them  seems to have taken nautilus for "its" and has played with it during the whole whole experiment in open sea (October 2004,  Urup island of Kuril ridge)


  1. Jilmer Tomas. Designing of  modern nave. L.: Shipbuilding, 1984. 240 S
  2. The History of storm seaworthiness (from antiquity till present) / V.N.Khramushin, S.V.Antonenko, A..Komaricin and others. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk: Sakhalin book. publishing, 2004. 288 S.: illus., multimedia. encl. (CD-ROM).
  3. Khramushin V.N. The Search studies of nave storm seaworthiness. Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2003. 172 S.
  4. Chapman F.H. Architectura Navalis Mercatoria. Rostok:VEB Hinstorf Verl.,1968.104 S.

Khramushin Vasily Nikolaevich - Candidate of technical sciences, (Special Research Bureau  for Automations of Marine Researches FEB RAS, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).

V.N. Khramushin.  Marine science and research activity of youth. .137-148